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美媒:提防朝鲜 避免再一个珍珠港

March 14, 2010: North Korea recently announced the it has formed a Taepodong 1 missile division. This is another way of saying that they are ready to attack American bases in Japan and Guam. This is not a big problem for American troops. That's because the Taepodong 1 missile accuracy is several hundred meters (the radius of the circle the missile warhead is likely to land in). The Taepodong 1 was first launched in1998, and went about 1,500 kilometers. Over the next decade, they got the range up to 3,000 kilometers.

2010年3月14日:朝鲜最近宣布它已经组建一个大浦洞-1导弹师。这是他们准备好攻击日本和关岛的美国基地另外一种说话方式。这对美国军队不是一个大的问题。因为大浦洞-1导弹精度是几百米(导弹弹头可能相对目标着陆偏差的圆半径)。大浦洞-1在1998年首次发射,大约射程1,500公里。在那之后经过十年,射程达到3,000公里。

Missiles of the Taepodong class are really too expensive to use with conventional warheads, but North Korea is unlikely to have a nuclear warhead that would work on the Taepodong 1. Nuclear warheads for ballistic missiles are very difficult to design and build. Unless they received technical assistance from someone who had already developed this technology, it will take a decade or more before North Korea has a workable nuclear warhead on their ballistic missiles. North Korea could arm the Taepodong 1 with a radiological warhead (explosives surrounded by radioactive material) that would disperse radioactive material over several square kilometers.

大浦洞级导弹确实太昂贵而无法使用常规弹头,但是朝鲜不太可能有能力在大浦洞-1上配备核弹头。用于弹道导弹的核弹头对设计和制造来讲是非常困难的。除非他们接受了已经发展这个技术的某些人的技术协助,在朝鲜有能力在他们的弹道导弹上装配核弹头之前,它将会花费十年或更长。朝鲜可以用一个放射性弹头(被放射性材料包围的炸药,或称脏弹)装配在大浦洞-1,将能在几平方公里上散布放射性物质。

Five years ago, North Korea had 5-10 Taepodong 1 missiles. There are probably a dozen or more fit for service now. A major problem with the Taepodong missiles is that they require days, at least, to prepare for firing. North Korean missile launching sites are under constant surveillance by American and Japanese satellites. So a surprise attack is unlikely. North Korea used the Taepodong 1 design to develop an ICBM, the Taepodong 2, with a range of 6,000 kilometers. There are only a few of these, and their reliability is questionable.

在五年以前,朝鲜拥有了5-10枚大浦洞-1导弹。现在或许十二枚或更多进入服役。大浦洞导弹一个主要的问题是有赖于白天,至少做发射准备工作。北朝鲜导弹的发射位置在美国和日本卫星不断监视下。因此一个出其不意攻击不太可能。朝鲜使用大浦洞-1设计发展洲际弹道导弹(ICBM),即大浦洞-2型,具有6,000公里射程。这些仅仅少量,而且它们的可靠性是可疑的。

Last year, American officials announced that sufficient anti-missile systems were being sent to Hawaii to deal with any potential North Korea success with their Taepodong missiles. The U.S. already has anti-missile systems in Hawaii (AEGIS SM-3 and THAAD/Terminal High Altitude Area Defense). Similar defenses are being established in Guam, and Japan has also built anti-missile system to defend themselves against North Korean ballistic missiles.

去年,美国正式宣布充足的反导系统正在被部署到夏威夷处理任何潜在的朝鲜和和他们的大浦洞(Taepodong)导弹威胁。美国现在已经拥有夏威夷反导系统(宙斯盾SM-3和THAAD/战区高空区域防御系统)。相似的防御正在关岛建立,而且日本也已经建立反导系统防卫自己对抗北朝鲜的弹道导弹。

The anti-missile system already in Hawaii are some THAAD systems at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. Last year, the U.S. Army began forming the first of four THAAD batteries. This unit will be ready for combat next year. The other three batteries will be in service within four years. Two years ago, there was a successful test of THAAD (a SCUD type target was destroyed in flight) using a crew of soldiers for the first time, and not manufacturer technicians, to operate the system.

一些THAAD反导系统已经部署在夏威夷的太平洋导弹靶场(PMRF)。去年,美国陆军开始组建首批四个THAAD营。这一个单位在明年将会做好战备。另外三个营将会在四年内服役。在二年以前,系统全部由军人操作没有制造公司的技术人员,成功进行了首次THAAD(一个飞毛腿导弹(SCUD)类型的目标在飞行中被摧毁)测试。

 Each THAAD battery will have 24 missiles, three launchers and a fire control communications system. This will include an X-Band radar. The gear for each battery will cost $310 million. The 18 foot long THAAD missiles weigh 1,400 pounds. The range of THAAD is 200 kilometers, max altitude is 150 kilometers, and it is intended for short (like SCUD) or medium range (up to 2,000 kilometer) range ballistic missiles. Tweaks to the system are supposed to make it capable of handling something like the Taepodong 2. THAAD has been in development for two decades. Ultimately, the army would like to buy at least 18 launchers, 1,400 missiles, and 18 radars.

每个THAAD营将会有24枚导弹,三套发射装置和一套火控通信系统,这将会包括一部X-波段雷达。每个营的装备将会花费三亿一千万美元。18英尺长的THAAD导弹重1,400 英磅,射程200公里,最大高度150公里,而且它用于短程(类似SCUD)或中程(达到2,000公里)射程的弹道导弹。系统应该有能力处理类似大浦洞-2的目标。THAAD发展达二十年之久。美国陆军想要至少购买18套发射装置,1,400枚导弹和18部雷达。

The navy has also modified its Standard anti-aircraft missile system to take down something like the Taepodong 2. This system, the RIM-161A, also known as the Standard Missile 3 (or SM-3), has a longer range than THAAD (over 500 kilometers) and max altitude of 160 kilometers. The SM 3 missiles cost over three million dollars each. The SM 3 has four stages. The first two stages boost the interceptor out of the atmosphere. The third stage fires twice to boost the interceptor farther beyond the earth's atmosphere. Prior to each motor firing it takes a GPS reading to correct course for approaching the target. The fourth stage is the 20 pound LEAP kill vehicle, which uses infrared sensors to close on the target and ram it. The AEGIS/SM-3 combination has had numerous successful tests, and recently shot down a low orbit satellite.

美国海军也已经改良它的标准防空导弹系统去击落类似大浦洞-2的目标。这一个系统所用导弹为RIM-161A型,也即是标准-3型(或SM-3),射程超过THAAD(超过500公里)和最大高度160公里。SM-3导弹每枚花费超过三百万美元。SM-3采用四级,最初二级推进拦截机离开大气层,第三级点火两次推进拦截机超过大气层到更高的高度。更重要的对每个发动机点火时导弹用从GPS获得参数为接近目标修正线路。第四级是20磅“动能拦截弹头”(LEAP)杀伤运载具,采用红外传感器逐渐接近和碰撞目标。宙斯盾/SM-3组合已经成功进行很多测试,而且最近击落一颗低轨道卫星。

The SM-3 operates from warships (cruisers and destroyers that have been equipped with the special software that enables the AEGIS radar system to detect and track incoming ballistic missiles.) There are several AEGIS equipped ships either near Hawaii, or close enough to reach the islands in less than a week.

SM-3从军舰上操作(巡洋舰和驱逐舰已经安装专用软件能够使宙斯盾雷达系统发现和跟踪来袭的弹道导弹)。有一些装备了宙斯盾的战舰或在夏威夷附近,或接近足够在不超过一个星期时间内到达夏威夷岛。

点击数:  更新时间:2010-3-19 9:15:06
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